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Table 4 Multilevel regression results: estimated effects on TIMSS mathematics achievement—school level

From: Context factors and student achievement in the IEA studies: evidence from TIMSS

   Intercept SES_school Princ_MRS Princ_EAS Princ_DAS Princ_PIN Teach_gender (female = 0)
Armenia All schools 477 (4.0) 9 (7.9) −2 (3.0) 7 (3.3) −3 (3.0) 5 (6.3) 2 (20.3)
Low SES 452 (6.6) −44 (26.2) −1 (9.5) 5 (8.6) 9 (4.3) 18 (9.0) −1 (28.6)
High SES 490 (5.1) 46 (22.4) −3 (4.1) 2 (4.5) 0 (4.0) 1 (8.9) 56 (20.3)
Australia All schools 508 (0.0) 64 (0.0) −4 (0.0) 4 (0.0) −5 (0.0) −11 (0.0) −1 (0.0)
Low SES 454 (6.0) 40 (15.5) 4 (3.3) 9 (4.3) 1 (7.2) −11 (10.1) 18 (11.8)
High SES 559 (5.5) 98 (8.8) 9 (3.1) 1 (3.2) −2 (4.1) −12 (7.8) −14 (10.3)
Chile All schools 431 (2.5) 33 (3.4) 2 (1.2) 7 (1.3) 1 (2.2) 1 (2.4) 8 (5.7)
Low SES 375 (4.0) 4 (13.0) −1 (3.2) 7 (2.3) −1 (3.4) 4 (5.9) 2 (13.3)
High SES 487 (3.8) 49 (6.9) −2 (2.5) 5 (2.5) 8 (4.9) −4 (3.6) 0 (8.3)
Chinese Taipei All schools 611 (2.5) 52 (4.1) −1 (1.5) 1 (2.0) −2 (1.6) −4 (2.9) 11 (4.7)
Low SES 572 (3.3) 90 (15.0) 2 (2.3) −3 (3.0) 0 (2.3) 1 (4.5) 24 (8.1)
High ES 653 (3.6) 52 (7.9) −2 (1.3) 0 (3.3) −4 (2.4) −4 (4.8) −7 (6.7)
England All schools 502 (4.7) 51 (6.5) 7 (2.6) −1 (3.4) 9.6 (4.8) −7.9 (5.1) 6 (9.4)
Low SES 439 (4.6) 34 (17.2) 6 (4.6) −0.1 (4.1) 7 (5.4) 13 (7.5) −19 (12.5)
High SES 565 (6.7) 47 (17.0) −3 (5.5) 0.5 (5.7) 5 (5.0) 34 (9.5) 28 (16.8)
Finland All schools 512 (2.2) 21 (4.4) 2 (1.7) 4 (1.6) 1 (2.0) −2 (2.5) 2 (4.5)
Low SES 500 (0.0) 76 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 8 (0.0) 2 (0.0) −9 (0.0) −3 (0.0)
High SES 528 (2.3) 12 (11.6) 3 (2.3) 7 (3.6) 0 (2.4) 6 (5.1) −4 (5.7)
Georgia All schools 450 (3.7) 19 (4.4) −4 (2.9) 12 (3.0) −2 (2.2) 9 (4.6) 20 (13.7)
Low SES 425 (5.5) 0 (12.5) 16 (6.5) 24 (6.0) 5 (2.4) 27 (9.1) 42 (24.8)
High SES 487 (5.3) 48 (16.0) 7 (4.4) 3 (4.3) 0 (4.7) −6 (5.6) 5 (20.5)
Hong Kong, SAR All schools 576 (4.0) 45 (7.0) 2 (2.2) −2 (3.4) 14 (3.6) −3 (5.7) −8 (9.7)
Low SES 519 (6.7) 96 (36.3) 0 (2.6) −13 (7.3) 13 (10.9) −8 (7.4) 64 (18.7)
High SES 635 (3.2) 34 (7.9) 3 (2.6) 5 (2.3) 10 (4.1) 1 (4.9) −3 (7.5)
Hungary All schools 500 (3.1) 46 (5.4) 4 (2.4) 1 (2.6) 2 (2.5) −3 (5.2) 1 (9.0)
Low SES 454 (4.0) 52 (9.3) 8 (3.7) 10 (3.1) 0 (4.3) 4 (6.0) 11 (12.0)
High SES 550 (3.2) 21 (7.5) −1 (1.9) 8 (3.0) 3 (2.4) 11 (5.0) 17 (8.5)
Israel All schools 526 (3.4) 38 (4.5) 3 (1.9) 1 (3.2) 3 (2.1) 8 (3.8) −10 (8.5)
Low SES 526 (3.4) 38 (4.5) 3 (1.9) 1 (3.2) 3 (2.1) 8 (3.8) −10 (8.5)
High SES 574 (4.3) 24 (10.5) 5 (3.6) −1 (4.2) −4 (5.2) 1 (4.3) −10 (14.7)
Italy All schools 498 (2.8) 27 (4.4) 2 (3.1) 0 (2.1) 2 (1.6) 0 (3.6) −7 (7.6)
  Low SES 471 (4.8) 12 (12.2) −4 (5.9) 7 (3.7) −2 (2.9) −7 (6.4) −6 (11.5)
  High SES 525 (3.7) 20 (10.7) 1 (3.1) −1 (3.8) 2 (2.2) −7 (5.7) −10 (9.3)
Japan All schools 569 (1.8) 26 (4.7) 2 (1.4) 2 (1.5) 1 (0.8) 2 (2.2) 1 (5.3)
  Low SES 550 (2.3) 24 (11.2) 2 (2.3) 1 (1.6) −2 (1.0) 3 (3.8) −7 (7.5)
  High SES 589 (2.9) 39 (10.8) −1 (2.9) −2 (2.0) 8 (2.8) 9 (5.9) 8 (11.7)
Republic of Korea All schools 616 (2.1) 35 (3.6) −1 (0.7) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.8) 0 (1.9) 0 (3.9)
  Low SES 592 (1.8) 2 (10.8) 2 (0.9) 3 (1.2) 1 (1.2) −4 (3.1) 2 (5.8)
  High SES 640 (2.6) 4 (7.5) 0 (2.1) 3 (2.2) −1 (1.7) −1 (4.2) 5 (9.3)
Lebanon All schools 455 (2.9) 29 (3.1) 4 (1.4) 4 (1.9) 2 (1.5) −3 (3.3) −2 (6.6)
  Low SES 406 (3.3) 25 (6.3) 3 (2.6) 9 (2.0) 1 (2.0) 10 (4.0) 0 (12.2)
  High SES 500 (3.3) 18 (8.3) 5 (1.8) 3 (3.4) 4 (1.3) −1 (5.4) −6 (10.3)
Lithuania All schools 503 (2.2) 42 (3.9) −1 (2.1) 5 (2.5) 2 (2.3) −1 (3.3) −14 (17.0)
  Low SES 470 (2.8) 53 (14.4) −1 (3.2) 12 (4.7) 1 (2.2) −8 (5.1) −26 (24.9)
  High SES 540 (3.0) 43 (6.9) 3 (3.7) −1 (3.1) −4 (4.6) 6 (5.2) −2 (15.1)
Malaysia All schools 437 (3.5) 64 (4.5) 0 (1.9) −3 (2.5) 7 (3.1) 0 (4.8) −5 (10.0)
  Low SES 372 (4.6) 39 (14.8) 1 (3.7) −3 (4.1) 3 (5.2) 9 (8.9) −5 (11.8)
  High SES 512 (4.7) 23 (8.5) 5 (3.0) 0 (4.0) −3 (4.3) −1 (6.9) −9 (17.0)
New Zealand All schools 481 (3.0) 52 (4.9) −2 (1.7) 6 (2.2) 8 (3.6) 3 (4.1) 13 (6.5)
  Low SES 432 (3.9) 59 (7.8) −3 (2.6) 7 (2.9) 4 (4.7) −3 (5.5) 10 (7.8)
  High SES 527 (2.0) −2 (10.7) 5 (1.7) 9 (2.2) −5 (2.4) 18 (5.7) −7 (4.5)
Norway All schools 478 (1.7) 25 (3.8) −1 (1.4) 1 (1.4) 5 (1.5) −5 (2.6) 8 (3.9)
  Low SES 462 (2.3) 45 (11.3) 1 (4.4) 1 (2.4) 4 (2.3) 6 (4.5) 4 (6.2)
  High SES 495 (2.1) 33 (11.9) 0 (1.7) 1 (2.6) 6 (1.7) −5 (3.9) 4 (6.8)
Romania All schools 467 (3.9) 28 (3.9) 5 (3.8) 7 (3.1) 1 (2.8) −2 (6.0) −4 (10.9)
  Low SES 422 (6.3) 12 (18.1) 10 (8.1) 11 (5.5) 3 (4.9) −5 (9.3) −12 (19.6)
  High SES 512 (2.8) 60 (5.6) 0 (3.3) −5 (2.5) 1 (2.3) 4 (3.7) 21 (6.2)
Singapore All schools 612 (2.7) 55 (4.5) 0 (0.9) 2 (1.3) 4 (2.2) 11 (4.1) 2 (5.5)
  Low SES 574 (3.8) 88 (14.9) −1 (2.1) 4 (2.7) 0 (4.3) −7 (6.5) 14 (10.0)
  High SES 661 (3.9) 39 (10.7) 0 (1.3) 0 (2.9) 6 (3.3) 2 (4.3) −19 (9.5)
Slovenia All schools 503 (2.0) 24 (5.4) −1 (1.2) 3 (1.3) −1 (1.2) −2 (2.7) 4 (5.1)
  Low SES 489 (2.9) 79 (18.6) −4 (2.3) 4 (2.2) 5 (2.3) −1 (4.4) 21 (6.1)
  High SES 517 (2.5) 35 (8.7) −3 (2.3) 4 (2.8) 4 (2.2) 6 (4.1) 16 (6.7)
Sweden All schools 487 (1.8) 28 (4.2) 0 (1.3) 0 (1.2) 4 (2.0) 4 (2.0) 3 (3.8)
  Low SES 467 (2.4) 30 (7.9) −4 (2.1) −3 (2.4) 7 (2.3) 0 (3.2) 4 (6.3)
  High SES 511 (2.9) 8 (10.8) 1 (3.4) 7 (3.0) 7 (3.4) −5 (3.6) −8 (5.5)
Thailand All schools 438 (4.5) 36 (5.4) 3 (2.6) 0 (3.1) −4 (4.2) −5 (7.7) 5 (10.6)
  Low SES 398 (6.4) −25 (26.3) −7 (4.7) 1 (5.3) −8 (5.3) 17 (9.4) 2 (15.8)
  High SES 502 (6.2) 57 (6.1) 6 (4.5) −1 (6.9) −11 (7.0) 27 (10.6) 8 (15.2)
Tunisia All schools 424 (2.5) 28 (2.5) −3 (2.3) 1 (1.3) −1(1.4) 0 (3.3) 9 (5.2)
  Low SES 399 (3.2) 32 (6.6) 7 (2.5) −2 (1.5) 2 (3.1) 1 (3.2) −7 (7.2)
  High SES 459 (4.6) 46 (7.5) −3 (4.5) 4 (3.0) −5 (3.0) 3 (5.0) 3 (8.2)
Turkey All schools 453 (2.8) 31 (2.7) 1 (2.6) 6 (1.8) 2 (1.5) −1 (3.2) 2 (5.8)
  Low SES 409 (4.5) 17 (7.4) 1 (3.8) 6 (3.1) 0 (3.2) 4 (6.8) 3 (10.0)
  High SES 507 (4.6) 47 (8.7) 2 (3.5) 7 (3.2) 1 (2.4) 0 (7.0) −1 (11.2)
Ukraine All schools 486 (3.1) 28 (5.0) −1 (3.7) 1 (3.8) 4 (2.1) −1 (5.5) 9 (9.4)
  Low SES 461 (4.8) 40 (14.9) 8 (7.7) −5 (6.1) −3 (3.6) 25 (14.2) −3 (19.4)
  High SES 518 (4.3) 51 (13.5) 1 (4.8) 7 (6.3) 7 (3.8) 3 (7.0) 69 (34.4)
United Arab Emirates All schools 497 (3.9) 45 (8.7) 3 (1.9) 1 (2.6) 3 (2.5) 8 (5.6) −1 (9.2)
  Low SES 420 (3.5) 31 (9.1) 1 (2.0) 2 (1.8) 1 (1.4) 0 (3.8) 38 (9.1)
  High SES 497 (3.9) 45 (8.7) 3 (1.9) 1 (2.6) 3 (2.5) 8 (5.6) −1 (9.2)
United States All schools 507 (2.4) 40 (3.3) 2 (1.2) 1 (1.6) −3 (2.0) 2 (2.6) −6 (5.2)
  Low SES 473 (3.7) 30 (8.6) −1 (2.1) 2 (2.6) −4 (4.1) 4 (3.7) −11 (8.1)
  High SES 558 (4.5) 46 (13.4) 2 (2.1) 0 (2.9) −4 (4.0) 6 (5.1) 4 (9.8)
   Teach_WCN Teach_EAS Teac h_SOS Teach_CTM Teach_CST Teach_CIT Teach_IES Teach_PRP Teach_STT
Armenia All schools 3 (2.8) 3 (3.1) 2 (2.6) 5 (3.1) −1 (2.7) 0 (2.5) 0 (2.1) −20 (12.7) 0 (1.8)
  Low SES 6 (7.9) 4 (5.3) −2 (5.1) −2 (4.6) −2 (4.7) −7 (8.1) 3 (4.8) −9 (20.0) −1 (4.4)
  High SES 3 (3.4) 1 (4.0) −5 (3.9) 7 (4.8) 0 (3.7) 3 (2.1) 1 (3.2) −8 (16.2) 2 (2.5)
Australia All schools −1 (0.0) 4 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 3 (0.0) −2 (0.0) 3 (0.0) −1 (0.0) −6 (0.0) −1 (0.0)
  Low SES 1 (3.7) 3 (3.8) −2 (3.7) 1 (3.9) 1 (3.8) 4 (2.8) 3 (4.1) −3 (7.3) 2 (1.7)
  High SES −4 (3.8) 8 (4.4) −5 (5.9) 9 (2.8) −3 (2.7) 0 (3.9) −4 (4.3) −7 (18.7) 4 (1.9)
Chile All schools 0 (1.4) 0 (1.6) 2 (1.2) −1 (1.8) 4 (1.6) 1 (1.2) −2 (1.6) 2 (2.9) 1 (1.0)
  Low SES −1 (2.6) −6 (2.8) 0 (2.4) 0 (5.2) 9 (2.8) 3 (3.6) 3 (4.1) 1 (6.8) 2 (1.9)
  High SES 3 (2.5) 0 (2.2) 1 (3.1) −4 (3.9) −1 (3.1) 0 (1.6) −1 (2.0) −2 (18.9) 1 (1.3)
Chinese Taipei All schools 0 (1.8) 1(1.7) 1 (1.4) −1(1.3) −3 (1.9) −1 (1.2) 1 (1.0) 2 (2.7) −2 (1.2)
  Low SES 0 (2.4) 0 (3.1) 0 (3.2) 2 (2.2) −6 (3.3) 0 (2.0) 2 (1.8) 4 (5.6) 2 (1.5)
  High SES 3 (2.9) 1 (2.5) 0 (2.4) 2 (2.0) −1 (3.3) 6 (2.3) 0 (1.7) 2 (3.3) −4 (2.4)
England All schools −5 (3.2) 1 (3.2) 4 (3.3) 0 (3.7) 3 (2.5) −2 (2.4) −1 (2.2) −6 (7.6) 1 (6.0)
  Low SES 0 (4.6) 1 (3.5) 9 (3.9) 13 (6.0) 7 (3.6) −6 (3.0) −3 (3.1) 18 (12.6) 5 (19.0)
  High SES −2 (3.4) −2 (6.2) 3 (5.6) 0 (5.0) 2 (2.4) 4 (4.5) 3 (4.6) −5 (12.0) −5 (28.0)
Finland All schools −2 (2.0) −1 (1.7) 2 (1.8) 0 (1.3) −1 (1.5) −2 (1.4) 1 (1.1) 4 (4.5) 0 (1.2)
  Low SES −2 (0.0) −3 (0.0) 5 (0.0) −2 (0.0) 6 (0.0) −5 (0.0) 0 (0.0) −11 (0.0) 4 (0.0)
  High SES −2 (2.6) 0 (3.1) −3 (2.3) −2 (2.2) 3 (2.2) 2 (1.8) −1 (1.7) −2 (7.6) 4 (2.7)
Georgia All schools 0 (2.0) 10 (2.7) 2 (3.0) −1 (2.1) −2 (2.3) 4 (2.2) 1 (2.2) 6 (6.2) 3 (2.0)
  Low SES 6 (4.8) 3 (6.0) −4 (5.1) 1 (3.7) −9 (5.6) 11 (2.6) 3 (4.0) −6 (7.9) 4 (2.8)
  High SES −2 (3.5) 7 (3.3) 3 (4.3) −4 (5.0) −1 (2.9) −4 (7.1) 5 (3.8) 35 (21.1) −4 (4.2)
Hong Kong, SAR All schools −3 (3.5) 2 (3.7) 3 (3.1) −1 (2.7) 2 (2.6) 0 (2.6) 0 (2.3) 8 (6.4) 4 (1.8)
  Low SES 17 (7.4) 2 (6.5) 2 (6.4) −2 (4.4) 19 (6.8) 3 (3.9) 1 (4.2) 25 (7.5) −6 (3.4)
  High SES 0 (2.7) −6 (4.7) 8 (2.7) 3 (2.9) −2 (2.5) −5 (2.3) 8 (1.7) 16 (3.7) −3 (4.6)
Hungary All schools −1 (1.7) 0 (2.8) 1 (2.1) −4 (3.0) −4 (1.9) −2 (2.6) 3 (2.3) 7 (3.9) −8 (2.8)
  Low SES 1 (2.0) 0 (4.0) 2 (3.1) 20 (5.7) −1 (2.4) −6 (3.8) 10 (4.0) 14 (5.0) 8 (3.3)
  High SES −4 (2.2) 4 (2.4) −1 (2.6) 2 (2.1) −3 (2.8) 1 (4.2) 0 (2.2) −1 (2.4) −3 (2.4)
Israel All schools 7 (2.3) 3 (2.0) 5 (2.2) 0 (1.8) 2 (2.1) −1 (2.0) 1 (2.2) 4 (4.2) 0 (1.6)
  Low SES 7 (2.3) 3 (2.0) 5 (2.2) 0 (1.8) 2 (2.1) −1 (2.0) 1 (2.2) 4 (4.2) 0 (1.6)
  High SES −7 (4.7) 2 (3.2) 8 (4.4) −2 (3.6) 2 (2.8) 0 (3.7) −4 (4.7) 11 (7.8) −2 (1.8)
Italy All schools 0 (1.8) 4 (2.3) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.5) −1 (1.8) −2 (1.6) 3 (1.6) 0 (2.5) −1 (1.7)
  Low SES 1 (3.3) 5 (4.6) 4 (3.7) 4 (2.7) −1 (2.9) 2 (3.8) 10 (2.9) −5 (4.4) 2 (3.3)
  High SES 0 (3.3) 3 (3.4) −5 (2.7) −1 (2.9) 0 (3.9) 1 (2.5) −3 (2.7) −5 (5.6) 3 (2.9)
Japan All schools 1 (1.0) 3 (1.0) 0 (1.3) 0 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.9) 0 (1.2) 1 (1.8) 2 (1.1)
  Low SES 2 (1.5) 3 (1.5) 5 (3.2) 1 (1.4) 1 (1.4) −5 (2.3) 0 (1.8) −1 (2.3) 2 (2.0)
  High SES 0 (1.7) 4 (1.8) −3 (3.4) 5 (1.9) 7 (2.5) 2 (1.6) −3 (2.1) 14 (4.1) −3 (2.9)
Republic of Korea All schools 1 (1.1) 3 (1.1) −1 (1.5) 2 (0.7) 0 (1.2) 1 (0.8) 0 (1.0) −2 (1.7) 0 (0.5)
  Low SES 0 (1.2) 2 (1.6) −1 (1.8) −2 (1.0) 2 (1.5) 3 (1.0) 3 (1.2) −3 (2.1) 0 (0.8)
  High SES 0 (1.4) 2 (2.0) −1 (2.3) −1 (1.3) −3 (2.0) 0 (2.4) 0 (2.4) 0 (3.9) −1(1.1)
Lebanon All schools 1 (1.5) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.9) 2 (1.5) −1 (1.5) 2 (1.5) −1 (1.9) −1 (3.6) 1 (1.1)
  Low SES 6 (2.9) 6 (2.8) −3 (1.6) 7 (2.5) 6 (1.9) 1 (1.8) −1 (2.5) −7 (5.1) 4 (1.8)
  High SES 1 (2.5) 0 (2.5) 2 (3.7) −2 (2.7) −2 (1.9) −1 (1.8) 7 (2.8) −8 (4.8) 3 (1.4)
Lithuania All schools −1 (1.4) 0 (1.5) 0 (2.0) 2 (2.0) 0 (1.6) −1 (1.7) −3 (1.9) −3 (7.6) −1 (1.6)
  Low SES 0 (1.8) 3 (2.6) 0 (3.1) 9 (2.5) −2 (2.5) −1 (2.7) 6 (2.6) −11 (10.7) 0 (2.2)
  High SES 0 (2.4) 2 (2.7) 0 (2.4) 6 (2.4) 1 (1.7) −3 (2.2) 4 (2.8) 2 (11.2) 4 (2.5)
Malaysia All schools −5 (2.5) 2 (2.0) −1 (2.4) −1 (1.9) 1 (2.5) −3 (2.7) 2 (1.9) 9 (4.0) −1 (1.2)
  Low SES −1 (3.0) −1 (3.2) −8 (3.6) −1 (2.5) 10 (4.9) −3 (3.7) 1 (2.6) 12 (5.2) −1 (1.5)
  High SES −1 (6.1) 5 (2.6) 0 (4.2) 2 (3.1) −2 (3.3) −1 (4.9) 3 (2.4) 2 (9.4) 0 (1.9)
New Zealand All schools −2 (1.4) 0 (2.3) 4 (2.0) −4 (1.7) 0 (1.6) 0 (1.9) 2 (2.1) 7 (3.6) −1 (1.2)
  Low SES −4 (2.4) −3 (3.1) 4 (3.7) −4 (2.3) 4 (2.4) 1 (2.2) 5 (2.3) 10 (4.3) 4 (1.7)
  High SES 0 (2.3) 4 (2.1) 5 (2.3) −2 (2.2) −4 (2.4) 0 (2.1) 0 (1.9) 13 (2.6) 2 (1.4)
Norway All schools −1 (1.3) 3 (1.8) 0 (1.4) 1 (1.2) 0 (1.1) 3 (1.0) 0 (1.3) 6 (2.4) 1 (0.7)
  Low SES 1 (1.8) −1 (3.8) −1 (3.1) 4 (2.0) −1 (1.8) 4 (2.0) 1 (2.2) −6 (4.1) −1 (1.5)
  High SES 6 (2.6) 10 (3.2) −2 (2.3) 1 (1.4) 2 (2.4) 1 (1.8) 2 (1.3) 6 (2.4) −1 (1.3)
Romania All schools −1 (2.4) 0 (2.4) 1 (3.3) 3 (4.1) −2 (1.8) 0 (3.5) 4 (2.7) 8 (8.2) −3 (2.1)
  Low SES 1 (4.2) −1 (4.6) 1 (4.7) 4 (6.8) −3 (3.9) −3 (5.1) 7 (5.4) 11 (12.6) −3 (4.1)
  High SES −2 (2.4) 7 (2.2) −2 (2.2) −5 (3.9) −2 (1.6) 0 (2.2) 4 (3.1) 27 (17.5) 2 (1.4)
Singapore All schools −2 (1.6) 1 (1.5) 0 (1.9) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 2 (1.9) 1 (5.0) −1 (1.1)
  Low SES −3 (3.4) −4 (2.3) −3 (2.8) 1 (3.8) 6 (3.1) 0 (3.4) 4 (2.6) 3 (5.8) 0 (1.3)
  High SES −1 (2.8) 3 (3.3) 5 (3.8) −4 (2.1) −1 (2.9) 2 (2.8) 6 (2.9) 10 (9.2) −3 (1.5)
Slovenia All schools −1 (1.1) 3 (1.5) −2 (1.5) 1 (1.5) −1 (1.6) 2 (1.3) −1 (1.1) 8 (3.7) 2 (1.4)
  Low SES 0 (2.3) 8 (3.3) 0 (2.3) 0 (2.5) −3 (2.1) 1 (1.5) −3 (2.2) 12 (3.6) 3 (2.2)
  High SES 1 (1.3) 0 (2.6) −7 (2.8) 6 (2.6) 2 (1.9) 3 (2.0) −2 (1.4) 16 (4.3) 0 (1.6)
Sweden All schools 2 (1.2) 3 (1.4) −1 (1.5) −1 (1.4) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.9) −1 (1.1) 1 (3.0) 0 (0.5)
  Low SES 0 (1.4) 3 (3.3) 4 (2.7) −5 (2.8) 3 (2.4) 1 (1.8) 0 (1.3) 12 (6.6) 1 (1.0)
  High SES 5 (3.2) 1 (2.2) 2 (1.8) −1 (2.4) 0 (1.3) 4 (1.2) −3 (2.9) 5 (4.8) −1 (1.0)
Thailand All schools −1 (3.7) 1 (2.8) −2 (2.7) 2 (2.2) 0 (5.0) −2 (2.2) 2 (2.8) −5 (4.3) 1 (1.2)
  Low SES 1 (4.8) 4 (5.2) 0 (3.2) 4 (3.8) −17 (15.7) 1 (3.9) −5 (4.5) −7 (6.2) −1 (1.8)
  High SES 4 (8.1) 5 (3.9) 6 (5.1) 7 (3.6) −2 (4.9) 5 (2.2) 3 (4.5) 2 (5.9) −3 (2.2)
Tunisia All schools 4 (1.7) 3 (1.5) 2 (1.4) −3 (1.6) 0 (1.3) 0 (1.0) 2 (1.3) −3 (3.2) 1 (0.8)
  Low SES −3 (3.2) 0 (2.0) 5 (2.1) −3 (2.2) −2 (1.9) 0 (1.8) 3 (1.7) 5 (3.3) 0 (1.5)
  High SES −3 (4.1) 1 (3.2) −4 (3.4) −2 (3.0) 1 (3.3) −1 (2.5) 7 (3.0) −11 (7.0) 3 (1.4)
Turkey All schools 5 (1.7) −2 (1.7) 8 (1.9) 2 (1.5) 0 (1.3) −2 (1.6) 2 (1.6) 6 (3.1) 2 (1.5)
  Low SES 4 (2.1) −4 (2.8) 8 (2.9) 3 (2.6) 1 (1.7) 5 (2.4) 5 (2.6) 14 (6.3) 3 (2.0)
  High SES −5 (2.7) −3 (3.1) 8 (3.8) 0 (2.9) −3 (2.7) 0 (2.9) 2 (3.1) 10 (5.2) 1 (2.0)
Ukraine All schools 0 (2.7) 1 (3.3) 0 (2.9) −1 (4.1) 1 (2.8) 0 (3.6) 1 (2.6) −3 (3.7) 6 (2.6)
  Low SES −2 (4.6) 11 (4.5) −7 (4.5) −9 (7.8) 6 (5.1) −4 (6.9) −2 (3.8) −3 (6.2) 4 (6.7)
  High SES −2 (4.1) −4 (6.4) −3 (4.3) 15 (8.5) 3 (4.0) 1 (4.5) 1 (3.9) 0 (6.9) 4 (3.2)
United Arab Emirates All schools −2 (1.8) 6 (2.7) 2 (3.8) −2 (2.8) 6 (2.7) −4 (2.2) −1 (3.2) 10 (5.4) 3 (1.7)
  Low SES 0 (2.2) 3 (2.5) 5 (2.6) −1 (2.0) 0 (2.2) −6 (3.1) 1 (2.5) −5 (5.1) 1 (1.1)
  High SES −2 (1.8) 6 (2.7) 2 (3.8) −2 (2.8) 6 (2.7) −4 (2.2) −1 (3.2) 10 (5.4) 3 (1.7)
United States All schools 0 (1.2) 0 (1.5) −2 (1.6) 1 (1.7) −2 (1.4) 0 (1.0) 0 (1.8) 2 (4.4) 3 (0.9)
  Low SES −1 (1.9) 1 (2.1) 0 (2.1) 2 (2.8) −6 (2.4) 0 (1.6) −1 (3.4) −3 (5.8) −2 (1.3)
  High SES 5 (2.2) 0 (2.9) −6 (3.7) 2 (3.3) −3 (2.4) 1 (1.7) −1 (3.2) −6 (6.5) 5 (2.3)
   Student_gender (female = 0) SES_student St_SLM St_SVM St_SCM St_EML St_HMW
Armenia All schools −9 (2.6) 5 (1.0) 5 (1.0) −2 (0.8) 16 (1.1) 0 (0.8) −8 (1.9)
  Low SES 11 (5.1) 5 (1.3) 5 (1.6) 5 (1.3) 18 (1.1) 1 (1.7) 15 (4.4)
  High SES 8 (3.7) 4 (1.6) 4 (1.5) 0 (1.0) 13 (1.6) 0 (1.3) −5 (3.0)
Australia All schools −2 (3.8) 6 (1.3) 2 (1.1) −1 (1.2) 14 (1.2) −2 (1.1) 0 (2.4)
  Low SES −5 (5.1) 7 (1.3) 1 (1.6) −1 (1.3) 14 (1.1) −1 (1.7) −1 (4.4)
  High SES −4 (5.3) 6 (1.3) 1 (1.3) 0 (1.0) 14 (1.3) −2 (1.2) 0 (2.8)
Chile All schools 10 (3.4) 4 (0.7) 0 (1.0) 0 (0.8) 17 (0.8) 3 (0.9) 1 (2.2)
  Low SES 6 (4.3) 5 (1.5) 2 (1.5) −1 (1.2) 16 (1.4) 3 (1.1) −3 (4.0)
  High SES 13 (3.0) 2 (1.3) −1 (1.0) 2 (1.0) 17 (0.8) 4 (0.8) 3 (2.8)
Chinese Taipei All schools 15 (2.1) 12 (0.8) 5 (1.0) 2 (0.9) 17 (0.9) −2 (0.9) 10 (2.7)
  Low SES 12 (3.8) 12 (1.7) 7 (2.0) 2 (1.9) 16 (1.3) −1 (1.9) 10 (4.4)
  High SES 22 (3.5) 10 (1.2) 4 (1.8) 4 (1.3) 16 (1.5) −1 (1.5) 10 (2.9)
England All schools 5 (2.4) 8 (1.1) −1 (1.2) 0 (1.0) 11 (0.9) 0 (1.0) −2 (2.5)
  Low SES −5 (4.7) 10 (2.1) −4 (2.8) 1 (2.0) 14 (1.9) 2 (1.8) −1 (5.7)
  High SES −5 (3.7) 7 (1.5) 0 (1.4) −1 (1.2) 11 (1.2) −1 (1.4) −3 (3.7)
Finland All schools −9 (2.3) 8 (0.7) 2 (1.0) 1 (0.9) 17 (1.2) −5 (1.0) 8 (1.4)
  Low SES −7 (3.7) 7 (1.7) 2 (2.1) 1 (1.4) 17 (1.2) 7 (1.6) 9 (3.3)
  High SES 14 (3.9) 6 (1.3) 1 (1.7) 1 (0.9) 16 (1.2) −3 (2.3) 6 (6.0)
Georgia All schools −1 (3.9) 8 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 4 (1.1) 21 (1.7) 0 (1.3) 12 (2.1)
  Low SES 5 (8.7) 15 (2.8) 1 (2.1) −1 (2.4) 21 (2.8) −2 (2.6) 10 (3.7)
  High SES −2 (3.8) 5 (1.8) 2 (1.4) 6 (1.3) 21 (1.5) 1 (1.2) 18 (3.5)
Hong Kong, SAR All schools 9 (2.4) 0 (0.7) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 9 (0.8) 0 (1.4) −2 (2.6)
  Low SES 12 (3.4) 0 (1.3) 3 (1.5) 2 (1.2) 11 (1.5) −1 (1.3) 1 (3.2)
  High SES 6 (2.8) 1 (1.2) 4 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 8 (0.9) 1 (1.1) −1 (2.2)
Hungary All schools −3 (2.3) 12 (1.0) −2 (1.2) 0 (0.9) 19 (0.8) −2 (0.9) 4 (1.7)
  Low SES −5 (5.1) 16 (1.7) −2 (2.7) 0 (2.3) 20 (1.7) −1 (1.6) 1 (3.4)
  High SES −1 (2.5) 8 (1.2) 0 (0.9) 0 (0.8) 18 (0.9) 3 (1.2) 5 (2.2)
Israel All schools −4 (0.0) 9 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 17 (0.0) 4 (0.0) 7 (0.0)
  Low SES −4 (3.4) 9 (0.7) −1 (1.0) 2 (0.8) 17 (0.8) 4 (0.9) 7 (2.2)
  High SES 3 (6.1) 9 (1.4) 1 (1.3) 0 (1.3) 15 (1.3) 4 (1.6) −6 (4.2)
Italy All schools 1 (0.0) 8 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 19 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 3 (0.0)
  Low SES 1 (5.0) 9 (1.6) 2 (2.3) −2 (1.8) 17 (1.7) −3 (2.1) 5 (3.7)
  High SES 1 (4.7) 8 (1.1) −1 (1.9) 0 (1.8) 19 (1.5) 4 (1.9) 2 (3.0)
Japan All schools 9 (0.0) 11 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 4 (0.0) 19 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 10 (0.0)
  Low SES 13 (4.0) 12 (1.4) 2 (2.4) 3 (1.9) 20 (1.9) −2 (2.1) 2 (5.4)
  High SES 7 (3.0) 11 (1.6) 1 (1.4) 4 (1.6) 18 (1.9) 1 (1.2) 9 (4.3)
Republic of Korea All schools 4 (0.0) 13 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 6 (0.0) 22 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.0)
  Low SES −3 (5.1) 12 (1.5) 2 (2.0) 8 (1.5) 24 (1.6) −1 (1.3) 3 (4.2)
  High SES 8 (3.3) 15 (1.2) 4 (1.6) 6 (1.2) 19 (1.5) 0 (1.4) 3 (3.8)
Lebanon All schools 4 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (0.0) −1 (0.0) −2 (0.0)
  Low SES −1 (7.2) 0 (1.5) 5 (1.7) 1 (1.4) 8 (1.4) 0 (1.2) 7 (3.4)
  High SES 3 (3.4) 2 (1.0) 0 (1.1) −1 (0.9) 13 (1.2) −1 (1.3) 0 (2.4)
Lithuania All schools 12 (0.0) 11 (0.0) 1 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 21 (0.0) 7 (0.0) 4 (0.0)
  Low SES 16 (5.9) 14 (2.3) 1 (2.4) 1 (1.9) 25 (2.1) 10 (2.3) 1 (3.6)
  High SES 10 (3.7) 8 (1.3) 0 (1.3) 0 (1.0) 19 (0.9) 5 (1.3) 7 (2.6)
Malaysia All schools −2 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 8 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (0.0) 6 (0.0) 4 (0.0)
  Low SES −3 (3.2) 2 (0.9) 9 (1.1) 2 (0.9) 3 (1.6) 5 (1.1) 2 (2.0)
  High SES −5 (2.7) 1 (0.8) 5 (1.0) 1 (0.8) 10 (1.2) 7 (0.8) 5 (1.9)
New Zealand All schools −2 (0.0) 9 (0.0) 1 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 19 (0.0) 5 (0.0) −3 (0.0)
  Low SES 8 (4.5) 10 (2.2) −1 (1.7) 1 (1.4) 19 (1.5) 8 (1.2) 6 (4.3)
  High SES −6 (4.3) 10 (1.5) 1 (1.4) −2 (1.5) 19 (1.2) −2 (1.8) −1 (4.8)
Norway All schools 6 (0.0) 8 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 17 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 2 (0.0)
  Low SES 12 (5.3) 11 (1.4) 3 (2.3) 4 (1.3) 15 (2.2) 5 (1.4) −5 (3.4)
  High SES −3 (2.7) 9 (0.8) −1 (1.3) −2 (1.1) 17 (0.9) 0 (1.0) 4 (3.1)
Romania All schools −3 (0.0) 14 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 18 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 16 (0.0)
  Low SES 3 (3.2) 12 (1.5) 4 (1.3) −3 (1.1) 16 (1.3) −3 (1.6) 18 (3.9)
  High SES 7 (3.4) 13 (1.3) 1 (1.4) −1 (1.1) 20 (1.0) 5 (1.4) 13 (2.4)
Singapore All schools −3 (0.0) 5 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (0.0) 5 (0.0) 15 (0.0)
  Low SES −5 (4.7) 7 (1.3) 2 (1.6) −1 (1.5) 14 (1.4) 7 (2.0) 25 (4.0)
  High SES 4 (3.4) 1 (1.3) 4 (0.9) 0 (0.8) 9 (0.9) 2 (1.0) −3 (2.0)
Slovenia All schools −2 (0.0) 12 (0.0) 0 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 8 (0.0) 4 (0.0)
  Low SES −3 (4.0) 11 (1.7) 3 (1.3) 0 (1.3) 26 (1.2) 5 (1.9) 2 (2.9)
  High SES 2 (4.0) 11 (1.3) 1 (1.4) −3 (1.3) 21 (1.9) 6 (1.3) 8 (2.4)
Sweden All schools 9 (0.0) 8 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 18 (0.0) −2 (0.0) 6 (0.0)
  Low SES −8 (5.6) 9 (1.8) 3 (2.4) −3 (1.7) 19 (2.7) 0 (1.6) 11 (4.1)
  High SES 13 (4.4) 8 (1.2) 2 (1.9) −2 (1.5) 18 (1.3) −3 (2.1) 4 (4.0)
Thailand All schools −4 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 9 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 7 (0.0) 6 (0.0) −2 (0.0)
  Low SES −8 (4.3) −1 (1.7) 8 (1.8) 6 (2.0) 3 (3.2) 5 (2.3) 0 (2.8)
  High SES 0 (2.9) 1 (1.0) 10 (1.2) 1 (1.0) 8 (1.5) 6 (1.1) −2 (2.7)
Tunisia All schools 12 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 14 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 3 (0.0)
  Low SES 14 (2.8) 2 (1.1) 1 (1.2) −1 (1.2) 13 (1.3) 3 (1.2) 1 (2.1)
  High SES 9 (3.6) 6 (1.5) 0 (1.5) 1 (0.9) 15 (1.7) −2 (1.1) 3 (2.4)
Turkey All schools 9 (0.0) 9 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 22 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 4 (0.0)
  Low SES −9 (5.5) 5 (1.4) 1 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 19 (1.5) 2 (1.5) 1 (3.6)
  High SES 11 (3.3) 9 (1.3) −1 (1.5) 0 (1.3) 23 (1.1) 4 (1.3) 9 (3.4)
Ukraine All schools 2 (0.0) 10 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 28 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 1 (0.0)
  Low SES −3 (8.0) 18 (3.1) 2 (2.8) 1 (2.3) 26 (4.4) −3 (2.6) 0 (3.6)
  High SES 10 (3.5) 7 (1.3) 1 (1.5) −2 (1.2) 28 (1.5) 4 (1.4) 6 (2.7)
United Arab Emirates All schools −5 (0.0) 5 (0.0) 3 (0.0) −1 (0.0) 18 (0.0) 5 (0.0) 2 (0.0)
  Low SES −16 (10.3) 5 (0.9) 2 (1.4) 2 (0.9) 18 (1.2) 3 (1.0) 1 (2.7)
  High SES −5 (4.4) 5 (1.2) 3 (1.1) −1 (0.8) 18 (0.8) 5 (1.1) 2 (2.7)
United States All schools 4 (0.0) 4 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (0.0) 3 (0.0) −1 (0.0)
  Low SES 4 (2.7) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.9) −1 (0.8) 11 (0.7) 4 (0.8) −2 (1.8)
  High SES 1 (2.2) 3 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 0 (0.6) 9 (0.7) 3 (0.7) 1 (2.1)
  1. () standard errors appear in parentheses; statistically significant (p < 0.05) coefficient in italics