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Table 3 Total variance and explained variance in mathematics achievement across countries

From: Context factors and student achievement in the IEA studies: evidence from TIMSS

  All students Students from schools with low SES level Students from schools with high SES level
Variance without controls % of variance explained by model Variance without controls % of variance explained by model Variance without controls % of variance explained by model
Total variance % of variance between schools Within schools Between schools Total variance % of variance between schools Within schools Between schools Total variance % of variance between schools Within schools Between schools
Armenia 7867 23 22 13 8490 25 22 0 7460 23 20 18
Australia 7602 62 31 63 5799 43 30 38 7374 65 34 63
Chile 6536 44 34 73 4741 23 26 12 6572 45 42 68
Chinese Taipei 10,690 21 36 68 10,491 10 37 43 8458 16 36 44
England 7509 68 19 64 4773 32 24 50 4773 32 35 0
Finland 4131 13 43 20 4097 16 40 31 3711 5 44 0
Georgia 9701 27 32 47 8904 20 30 20 9414 29 37 52
Hong Kong, SAR 7620 64 25 61 6584 47 23 8 3850 38 27 50
Hungary 8925 42 43 74 9154 37 38 77 4912 10 48 0
Israel 8991 42 31 65 8991 42 31 65 5799 20 33 3
Italy 5461 26 38 32 5322 25 32 9 4678 15 36 0
Japan 6781 11 31 53 6602 5 30 18 6647 15 28 56
Republic of Korea 7865 9 43 73 7572 2 42 51 7385 10 43 48
Lebanon 5545 43 18 66 3790 17 17 28 3953 24 22 39
Lithuania 5988 23 39 68 6024 13 43 54 4952 15 37 41
Malaysia 8652 67 10 65 4947 42 10 21 4415 43 20 13
New Zealand 7519 37 36 65 5850 24 32 45 5343 13 39 72
Norway 3988 12 48 48 3949 8 43 15 3673 8 50 27
Romania 9659 32 33 46 8504 28 24 6 8367 21 39 74
Singapore 6697 44 20 66 6279 25 24 35 4172 44 20 50
Slovenia 4990 11 44 20 5064 15 42 45 4685 7 42 1
Sweden 4465 13 42 62 4753 10 41 62 4022 7 46 0
Thailand 6960 51 10 36 5813 34 6 0 6927 55 16 59
Tunisia 5816 30 20 61 4261 11 16 12 6343 36 32 54
Turkey 12,824 35 31 70 10,154 21 22 33 12,854 35 41 65
Ukraine 7373 23 28 36 6806 15 21 0 6393 18 32 40
United Arab Emirates 7705 39 100 100 6263 23 20 31 7470 36 34 46
United States 5568 58 21 51 4241 41 21 19 4673 57 25 28
  1. () standard errors appear in parentheses
  2. Because results are rounded to the nearest whole number, some total may appear inconsistent