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Table 2 Bivariate and partial correlations between country characteristics and the estimated effects of parental education on three subject domains

From: Determinants of country differences in effects of parental education on children’s academic achievement

Estimated effects of Parental Education on three subject domains Gini index Human development index
Bivariate correlation Partiala correlation Bivariate correlation Partialb correlation
With outliersc Without outliers With outliers Without outliers With outliers Without outliers With outliers Without outliers
Total effect on Math −.18 .03 −.04 −.16 .00 −.11 .07 .14
Total effect on Science −.02 .00 −.25 −.28 −.13 −.13 .24 .34
Total effect on Reading −.10 .01 −.19 −.22 −.10 −.10 .19 .28
Direct effect on Math .36* .29 −.36* −.09 −.26 .06 .25 .30
Direct effect on Science .35 .30 −.43* −.28 −.33 −.11 .29 .36
Direct effect on Reading .38* .34 −.51* −.40* −.43* −.24 .30 .39*
Indirect effect on Math −.49** −.23 .50* .14 .38* −.02 −.36* −.34
Indirect effect, Science −.58** −.39* .62* .39* .49** .21 −.44* −.42*
Indirect effect on Reading −.57** −.36 .56* .34 .43* .17 −.40* −.38*
Number of countries 31 27 31 27 34 30 31 27
  1. * Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tailed)
  2. ** Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tailed)
  3. aPartial correlation of Gini and estimated Parental Education effects controlling for HDI
  4. bPartial correlation of HDI and estimated Parental Education effects controlling for Gini
  5. cOutlier countries with extreme values in HDI and Gini are Botswana, Honduras, Hong Kong and Morocco