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Table 1 Estimates of total, direct and indirect effects

From: Determinants of country differences in effects of parental education on children’s academic achievement

Country Total effects Direct effects Indirect effects
Math Science Reading Math Science Reading Math Science Reading
Azerbaijan .11 .14 .15 .06 .08 .11 .05 .06 .03
Australia .33 .35 .33 .23 .22 .21 .11 .14 .12
Austria .31 .33 .32 .09 .10 .10 .22 .23 .22
Botswana .41 .45 .48 .32 .34 .38 .09 .10 .10
Chinese Taipei .37 .39 .34 .20 .22 .20 .17 .17 .13
Croatia .31 .32 .31 .17 .17 .16 .14 .15 .14
Czech Republic .31 .29 .29 .17 .13 .13 .14 .16 .16
Finland .29 .28 .28 .16 .13 .12 .13 .15 .16
Georgia .28 .29 .31 .15 .15 .17 .13 .14 .14
Germany .36 .38 .36 .17 .15 .15 .19 .23 .21
Honduras .34 .36 .34 .31 .31 .29 .03 .05 .05
Hong Kong SAR .16 .15 .12 .07 .05 .04 .09 .10 .08
Hungary .55 .55 .53 .27 .26 .29 .28 .29 .24
Iran, Islamic Rep. of .44 .45 .43 .25 .25 .25 .19 .20 .18
Ireland .33 .34 .34 .17 .16 .16 .17 .19 .19
Italy .24 .28 .3 .15 .14 .16 .09 .14 .14
Lithuania .36 .35 .35 .19 .18 .16 .17 .18 .19
Malta .34 .45 .44 .21 .30 .30 .13 .15 .15
Morocco .19 .19 .24 .18 .16 .19 .00 .03 .05
Oman .30 .31 .32 .21 .22 .23 .09 .08 .09
Norway .25 .28 .26 .16 .11 .11 .10 .17 .16
Poland .43 .44 .43 .27 .28 .29 .15 .16 .14
Portugal .30 .30 .31 .13 .13 .14 .18 .17 .18
Qatar .39 .38 .40 .31 .30 .32 .09 .08 .08
Romania .43 .47 .49 .21 .23 .25 .22 .24 .24
Russian Federation .27 .27 .30 .15 .14 .17 .11 .13 .13
Saudi Arabia .18 .25 .24 .09 .15 .16 .09 .10 .09
Singapore .39 .44 .41 .25 .27 .24 .15 .17 .17
Slovak Republic .37 .38 .38 .16 .16 .16 .21 .21 .21
Slovenia .38 .39 .35 .23 .21 .18 .15 .17 .17
Spain .37 .33 .31 .21 .14 .16 .17 .19 .16
Sweden .32 .34 .34 .13 .10 .12 .20 .25 .22
United Arab Emirates .39 .40 .42 .25 .27 .26 .14 .13 .15
Dubai, UAE .41 .42 .42 .25 .26 .25 .16 .16 .17
Abu Dhabi, UAE .40 .39 .40 .27 .27 .25 .13 .12 .15
Quebec, Canada .25 .29 .27 .18 .18 .17 .08 .11 .10
N. Ireland .38 .39 .36 .25 .23 .22 .13 .16 .14
Average .33 .35 .34 .19 .19 .20 .14 .15 .15
Standard deviation .09 .09 .09 .07 .07 .07 .06 .06 .05