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Table 7 International achievement profiles of 4th-grade students in Europe by attitude toward learning and self-concept

From: Subject-specific strength and weaknesses of fourth-grade students in Europe: a comparative latent profile analysis of multidimensional proficiency patterns based on PIRLS/TIMSS combined 2011

  Profile 1 Profile 2 Profile 3 Profile 4 Profile 5 Profile 6 Profile 7
% (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE)
Positive attitude toward learning
 Readinga 10.7 (1.1) 15.2 (0.7) 20.5 (0.4) 24.4 (0.3) 27.7 (0.3) 39.3 (0.4) 52.3 (0.8)
 Mathematicsb 24.7 (1.5) 36.2 (0.9) 44.7 (0.5) 46.8 (0.4) 48.3 (0.3) 50.3 (0.4) 54.4 (0.8)
 Sciencec 12.7 (1.2) 22.7 (0.7) 33.5 (0.5) 44.9 (0.4) 57.3 (0.3) 71.6 (0.4) 84.6 (0.6)
Positive self-conceptd
 Reading 12.7 (1.2) 22.7 (0.7) 33.5 (0.5) 44.9 (0.4) 57.3 (0.3) 71.6 (0.4) 84.6 (0.6)
 Mathematics 23.2 (1.5) 34.8 (0.9) 43.1 (0.5) 51.6 (0.4) 61.8 (0.3) 73.2 (0.4) 84.5 (0.6)
 Science 24.8 (1.5) 35.8 (0.9) 45.8 (0.5) 56.1 (0.4) 65.0 (0.3) 72.5 (0.4) 78.1 (0.7)
  1. aCategorized as the highest category “Likes Reading” of the international “Students like Reading” index
  2. bCategorized as the highest category “Likes Mathematics” of the international “Students like Learning Mathematics” index
  3. cCategorized as the highest category “Likes Science” of the international “Students like Learning Science” index
  4. dOperationalized as the top 50% median-split of the self-concept scale