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Table 6 International achievement profiles of 4th-grade students in Europe by socioeconomic and cultural characteristics and family language

From: Subject-specific strength and weaknesses of fourth-grade students in Europe: a comparative latent profile analysis of multidimensional proficiency patterns based on PIRLS/TIMSS combined 2011

  Profile 1
% (SE)
Profile 2
% (SE)
Profile 3
% (SE)
Profile 4
% (SE)
Profile 5
% (SE)
Profile 6
% (SE)
Profile 7
% (SE)
Socioeconomic and cultural characteristics
 Family with high SESa 11.7 (1.2) 14.9 (0.7) 20.1 (0.4) 28.5 (0.4) 40.5 (0.4) 53.2 (0.5) 67.4 (0.9)
 Family with high level of educationb 5.8 (0.5) 2.4 (0.6) 10.9 (0.4) 18.0 (0.3) 28.9 (0.3) 43.7 (0.4) 60.7 (0.9)
 Significant number of books at homec 10.9 (1.1) 12.4 (0.6) 14.7 (0.4) 19.4 (0.3) 28.4 (0.3) 41.1 (0.4) 57.4 (0.8)
Family language
 Family language is not national languaged 45.0 (45.0) 38.9 (0.9) 30.5 (0.5) 23.4 (0.3) 16.8 (0.3) 11.6 (0.3) 7.3 (0.5)
  1. aParents have professional, academic, or high-level careers as opposed to manual labor work
  2. bAt least one parent with a university degree or similar as opposed to no post-secondary education
  3. cMore than 100 books at home as opposed to 100 or fewer
  4. dLanguage of test is spoken seldom or almost never at home as opposed to always or almost always