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Table 2 Mean achievement and percentages for different indicators of economic and cultural capital by country

From: Subject-specific strength and weaknesses of fourth-grade students in Europe: a comparative latent profile analysis of multidimensional proficiency patterns based on PIRLS/TIMSS combined 2011

Country k Achievement domaina Background characteristics of the students
Mathematics Science Reading SES Parent. Edu Books Language
M (SE) M (SE) M (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE)
Austria 4.587 505 (2.6) 528 (2.6) 512 (2.4) 6.5 (0.2) 6.5 (0.2) 6.1 (0.2) 6.5 (0.2)
Czech Republic 4.433 508 (2.5) 533 (2.3) 530 (2.2) 6.5 (0.2) 6.3 (0.2) 6.0 (0.2) 6.3 (0.2)
Finland 4.541 543 (2.3) 568 (2.2) 556 (2.0) 6.8 (0.2) 6.3 (0.2) 6.2 (0.2) 6.5 (0.2)
Germany 3.928 525 (2.2) 524 (2.3) 526 (2.4) 4.6 (0.1) 4.3 (0.1) 4.8 (0.1) 5.1 (0.1)
Hungary 5.149 512 (3.4) 531 (3.3) 524 (3.1) 6.8 (0.2) 6.9 (0.2) 6.9 (0.2) 7.4 (0.2)
Ireland 4.383 526 (2.8) 513 (3.1) 538 (2.7) 6.0 (0.1) 6.1 (0.1) 5.9 (0.1) 6.2 (0.1)
Italy 4.125 504 (2.7) 520 (2.6) 527 (2.0) 5.7 (0.1) 5.5 (0.1) 5.5 (0.1) 5.9 (0.1)
Lithuania 4.584 531 (2.6) 510 (2.4) 512 (2.0) 6.1 (0.1) 6.3 (0.1) 6.2 (0.1) 6.6 (0.1)
Malta 3.492 492 (1.3) 441 (1.9) 454 ( .7) 4.4 (0.0) 4.2 (0.0) 4.7 (0.0) 4.9 (0.0)
Poland 4.962 477 (2.3) 500 (2.2) 508 (2.1) 7.1 (0.1) 7.2 (0.1) 6.7 (0.1) 7.1 (0.1)
Portugal 3.991 530 (3.4) 518 (3.8) 526 (2.9) 5.3 (0.3) 5.6 (0.3) 5.4 (0.3) 5.7 (0.3)
Romania 4.643 476 (6.0) 501 (6.1) 481 (4.9) 5.7 (0.2) 6.6 (0.2) 6.1 (0.2) 6.6 (0.2)
Slovak Republic 5.561 503 (3.9) 528 (3.7) 519 (3.1) 7.6 (0.2) 8.0 (0.2) 7.5 (0.2) 7.9 (0.2)
Slovenia 4.433 510 (2.0) 516 (2.1) 514 (2.1) 6.4 (0.2) 6.4 (0.2) 6.0 (0.1)  b  
Spain 4.105 479 (2.8) 501 (2.7) 493 (2.8) 5.5 (0.1) 5.4 (0.1) 5.5 (0.1) 5.9 (0.1)
Sweden 4.482 502 (2.2) 530 (2.6) 527 (2.1) 6.0 (0.2) 5.4 (0.2) 5.9 (0.1) 6.4 (0.2)
Northern Ireland 3.469 561 (2.7) 513 (2.5) 545 (2.4) 3.0 (0.1) 2.8 (0.1) 4.7 (0.1) 5.0 (0.1)
EU-country average 74.868 511 (0.7) 516 (0.7) 517 (0.6) 5.9 (0.0) 5.9 (0.0) 5.9 (0.0) 5.9 (0.0)
  1. aAchievement means based on the PIRLS/TIMSS 2011 combined dataset (Foy 2013) for which achievement measures are obtained using a multidimensional scaling approach combining all three subjects. Achievement means therefore differ from those in the TIMSS and PIRLS international report (shown in Table 1) b Data not available