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Table 6 Percent significant residuals under different unidimensional models

From: Assessment of fit of item response theory models used in large-scale educational survey assessments

Residual Model LTT math age 9 Reading grade 12 Math grade 8 Science grade 12
Item-fit residual 1PL/PCM 67 43 75 47
2PL/GPCM 40 26 64 33
C3PL/GPCM 35 27 64 28
3PL/GPCM 28 29 64 33
First-order marginal 1PL/PCM 0 0 0 0
2PL/GPCM 0 0 0 0
C3PL/GPCM 29 5 0 19
3PL/GPCM 0 0 0 0
Second-order marginal 1PL/PCM 47 15 27 18
2PL/GPCM 31 13 19 15
C3PL/GPCM 31 13 19 15
3PL/GPCM 31 14 19 15