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Table 2 Descriptive information at the country level, sample sizes and summary information for the selected variables for the period 2001–2006, OECD countries only

From: Is computer availability at home causally related to reading achievement in grade 4? A longitudinal difference in differences approach to IEA data from 1991 to 2006

Country Study Sample V1. Read Ach V2. Computer at home V3. Borrow Books V4. Books at home V5. Girls V6. Cntry Lang
n Mean SD % Mean SD Mean SD % %
France P01 3538 525 70 0.27 2.37 0.77 3.22 1.18 0.48 0.87
P06 4404 522 67 0.37 2.76 0.42 3.26 1.24 0.48 0.66
Germany P01 7633 539 67 0.24 1.86 0.82 3.06 1.18 0.50 0.90
P06 7899 548 67 0.29 2.72 0.45 3.19 1.18 0.49 0.73
Hungary P01 4666 543 66 0.27 1.79 0.77 3.45 1.25 0.51 0.96
P06 4068 551 70 0.46 2.66 0.47 3.13 1.21 0.50 0.75
Iceland P01 3676 512 75 0.34 2.32 0.72 3.52 1.09 0.49 0.88
P06 3673 511 68 0.48 2.66 0.48 3.36 1.10 0.50 0.64
Israel P01 3973 509 94 0.55 2.27 0.79 3.13 1.24 0.50 0.80
P06 3908 512 99 0.64 2.75 0.43 3.07 1.23 0.48 0.57
Italy P01 3502 541 71 0.28 1.92 0.83 2.83 1.22 0.48 0.96
P06 3581 551 68 0.31 2.71 0.45 2.90 1.26 0.48 0.71
Netherlands P01 4112 554 57 0.40 2.14 0.78 2.92 1.15 0.50 0.86
P06 4156 547 53 0.55 2.62 0.49 2.92 1.12 0.51 0.76
New Zealand P01 2488 529 95 0.34 2.59 0.66 3.38 1.21 0.49 0.84
P06 6256 532 87 0.37 2.82 0.39 3.29 1.23 0.49 0.73
Norway P01 3459 499 81 0.31 2.03 0.78 3.60 1.12 0.48 0.92
P06 3837 498 67 0.44 2.66 0.47 3.39 1.18 0.49 0.80
Slovak Republic P01 3807 518 70 0.59 1.93 0.76 3.21 1.10 0.50 0.16
P06 5380 531 74 0.60 2.71 0.45 3.09 1.14 0.51 0.29
Sweden P01 6044 561 66 0.36 1.93 0.68 3.71 1.10 0.49 0.90
P06 4394 549 64 0.46 2.48 0.50 3.44 1.11 0.48 0.75
USA P01 3763 542 83 0.38 2.55 0.70 3.28 1.23 0.51 0.85
P06 5190 540 74 0.40 2.84 0.36 3.05 1.24 0.51 0.72
England P01 3156 553 87 0.37 2.27 0.76 3.33 1.17 0.52 0.88
P06 4036 539 87 0.47 2.73 0.44 3.32 1.26 0.50 0.76
Scotland P01 2717 528 84 0.36 2.22 0.79 3.15 1.24 0.52 0.89
P06 3775 527 80 0.44 2.74 0.44 3.19 1.26 0.51 0.80
Canada P01 4295 548 72 0.43 2.53 0.66 3.50 1.13 0.49 0.83
Ontario P06 3988 554 71 0.44 2.82 0.38 3.35 1.21 0.49 0.61
Canada P01 3958 537 72 0.41 2.55 0.68 3.17 1.16 0.51 0.85
Quebec P06 3748 533 63 0.42 2.81 0.39 3.01 1.17 0.49 0.64
  1. V1. Overall reading achievement, V2. How often do you use computer at home? (proportion weekly or daily), V3. How often do you borrow books from a school or public library? [never (1), once or twice a month (2), at least once a week (3)], V4. About how many books are there in your home? [0–10 (1), 11–25 (2), 26–100 (3), 101–200 (4), more than 200 (5)], V5. Are you a boy or a girl? [boy (0), girl (1)], V6. How often do you speak (language of test) at home? [always (1), not always (0)]
  2. P01, PIRLS 2001; P06, PIRLS 2006