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Table 3 OLS regression on the effect of preschool attendance on student reading achievement

From: Does non-participation in preschool affect children’s reading achievement? International evidence from propensity score analyses

  Chinese Taipei Germany New Zealand Norway Russia Singapore Slovakia Spain Sweden
Original sample
Constant 560.2 544.7 538.0 510.9 571.8 578.1 544.4 520.0 547.4
[552.1, 568.3] [539.5, 549.9] [531.2, 544.7] [498, 523.8] [561.8, 581.8] [571.8, 584.3] [538.4, 550.5] [506.8, 533.2] [539.7, 555.1]
Treatment −37.4 −41.7 −60.2 −21.3 −18.7 −76.8 −64.2 −30.0 −41.6
[−64.5, −10.3] [−71.6, −11.8] [−88.5, −31.9] [−48.2, 5.6] [−29.6, −7.8] [−103.2, −50.5] [−84.5, −43.8] [−54.1, −5.9] [−104.4, 21.1]
Covariates No No No No No No No No No
N 1707 2986 2380 2376 3740 4054 3939 6007 3599
Matched sample
Constant 536.3 524.6 491.0 490.5 561.0 545.2 498.4 502.5 517.6
[510.7, 561.9] [497.7, 551.5] [475, 507.1] [458.2, 522.7] [549.9, 572.1] [519.6, 570.7] [483.4, 513.3] [484.4, 520.7] [506.1, 529.2]
Treatment −13.5 −21.6 −13.3 −0.8 −7.9 −43.9 −18.1 −12.5 −11.8
[−48.7, 21.7] [−57.5, 14.3] [−37.2, 10.6] [−36.4, 34.7] [−22.0, 6.2] [−78.2, −9.6] [−39.5, 3.3] [−35.0, 10.1] [−33.9, 10.2]
Covariates No No No No No No No No No
N 106 102 508 188 1184 160 494 316 398
Matched sample with covariates as controls
Constant 518.2 421.8 363.4 409.4 448.4 479.9 495.9 384.3 430.1
[394.1, 642.3] [327.9, 515.8] [297.9, 428.9] [322.4, 496.4] [402.0, 494.8] [398, 561.8] [420.8, 571.0] [291.5, 477.0] [353.4, 506.8]
Treatment −13.4 −19.2 −17.1 −5.1 −3.5 −39.8 1.2 −14.5 −19.6
  [−44.1, 17.3] [−50.6, 12.2] [−37.0, 2.9] [−35.5, 25.4] [−16.0, 9.0] [−64.2, −15.5] [−17.2, 19.6] [−33.4, 4.3] [−36.6, −2.5]
Covariates Yesa Yesa Yesa Yesa Yesa Yesa Yesa Yesa Yesa
N 106 102 508 188 1184 160 494 316 398
  1. Dependent variable is the overall reading score measured by five plausible values. Pooled results of separate regression models with the five imputed datasets. 95 % confidence intervals in brackets
  2. aThe eight covariates are Parents Attitudes Towards Reading, Language at Home, Highest Parental Occupational Status, Highest Parental Educational Status, Gender, Early Home Literacy Activities, Books at Home (student survey), Books at Home (parental survey)