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Table 2 Descriptive statistics and amount of missing data for the outcome and covariates

From: Does non-participation in preschool affect children’s reading achievement? International evidence from propensity score analyses

  Reading Achiev. (ASRREA01–ASRREA05) Parents Attitudes Towards Reading (ASBHPLR) Language at Home (ASBG03) Highest Parental Occupational Status (ASDHOCCP) Highest Parental Educational Status (ASDHEDUP) Gender (ITSEX) Early Home Literacy Activities (ASBHELA) Books at Home (student survey) (ASBG04) Books at Home (parental survey) (ASBH14)
Chinese Taipei
 Mean 561.25 9.49 1.51 3.79 2.73 1.54 8.79 2.02 1.96
 SD 60.47 1.71 0.52 1.24 0.99 0.50 1.90 1.28 1.32
 Missing (%) 0.00 1.44 0.98 6.64 2.80 0.00 1.19 0.84 1.51
Germany
 Mean 544.32 10.14 1.80 3.57 2.50 1.51 10.20 2.18 2.54
 SD 62.20 2.21 0.41 1.17 1.26 0.50 1.73 1.15 1.23
 Missing (%) 0.00 20.73 10.10 27.18 27.05 0.00 20.08 10.75 20.73
New Zealand
 Mean 530.33 10.73 1.72 4.07 2.89 1.51 10.91 2.17 2.47
 SD 87.46 2.19 0.49 1.23 1.13 0.50 2.12 1.16 1.25
 Missing (%) 0.00 40.06 1.05 43.04 41.02 0.00 40.52 2.20 40.26
Norway
 Mean 513.05 10.78 1.81 4.44 3.47 1.50 10.08 2.31 2.91
 SD 57.44 2.13 0.43 1.01 0.82 0.50 1.72 1.12 1.12
 Missing (%) 0.00 9.62 2.76 12.35 12.60 0.00 8.81 3.26 9.44
Russia
 Mean 572.32 9.63 1.84 3.77 3.36 1.51 11.13 1.97 2.29
 SD 61.57 1.79 0.41 1.25 0.77 0.50 1.94 1.06 1.15
 Missing (%) 0.00 0.94 0.34 4.15 5.65 0.00 1.10 0.29 1.05
Singapore
 Mean 575.46 9.74 1.29 4.18 2.86 1.49 9.53 2.16 1.88
 SD 74.71 1.75 0.56 1.14 1.10 0.50 2.11 1.07 1.22
 Missing (%) 0.00 2.76 1.55 9.25 5.61 0.00 2.72 1.76 2.87
Slovakia
 Mean 541.51 10.05 1.77 3.59 2.64 1.50 10.55 2.00 2.13
 SD 64.12 2.01 0.49 1.37 1.01 0.50 1.85 1.13 1.17
 Missing (%) 0.00 2.84 1.14 11.28 4.23 0.00 2.65 1.23 2.95
Spain
 Mean 523.98 10.10 1.73 3.57 2.50 1.50 10.50 2.05 2.35
 SD 62.27 2.10 0.55 1.37 1.35 0.50 1.78 1.15 1.21
 Missing (%) 0.00 7.32 1.15 13.76 12.21 0.00 7.40 1.39 7.55
Sweden
 Mean 543.58 10.86 1.77 4.20 3.06 1.51 9.95 2.25 2.72
 SD 62.66 2.13 0.45 1.17 1.00 0.50 1.78 1.16 1.23
 Missing (%) 0.00 13.63 2.42 18.91 20.96 0.00 13.18 3.66 13.95
  1. We used multiple imputations to replace missing data, and the reported means and standard deviations (SD) are based on the combined results from the five imputed datasets (see the section on missing data)