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Fig. 1 | Large-scale Assessments in Education

Fig. 1

From: TIMSS data in an African comparative perspective: Investigating the factors influencing achievement in mathematics and their psychometric properties

Fig. 1

Conceptual as well as the baseline model for the study. The large ovals are latent factors; the rectangles are measured variables on constructs (to avoid cluttering, each large rectangle was used to represent the number items on a construct and the number of items indicated inside); the small circles measure variable uniqueness/error term. The double-headed arrows are correlations between the latent variables. The dotted double-headed arrows lines are correlated uniquenesses (CUs), (shaded) to control for the method effect associated with the negative worded item effect. Parental Involvement (PIV), student value mathematics (SVM), students like mathematics (SLM), students confident in mathematics (SCM), Teacher responsiveness (TRES), positively worded items (pos), negatively worded items (neg)

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