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Table 4 HLM results of the fixed and random effects of the final models

From: Affective characteristics and mathematics performance in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand: what can PISA 2012 data tell us?

Variables Indonesia Malaysia Thailand
Coef. SE Coef. SE Coef. SE
Mathematics performance 371.58 2.95 420.26*** 3.49 443.73*** 7.64
Student-level variables
 BELONG ns −6.46*** 2.51 ns
 PERSEV ns ns 9.78** 3.71
 INSTMOT ns 7.49** 3.03 ns
 MATBEH −5.23* 2.88 −9.70*** 2.20 ns
 ATTSCHL 5.40*** 1.86 8.52*** 2.50 7.92** 3.40
 ATTLNACT −4.95*** 1.91 ns −5.38* 2.88
 OPENPS ns ns ns
 FAILMAT ns ns −8.96*** 2.44
 MATHEFF 12.63*** 3.69 24.82*** 3.53 ns
 SCMAT −7.58** 3.28 ns ns
 INTMAT ns ns −6.81* 3.75
 ANXMAT −10.16*** 2.20 ns −14.37*** 3.77
School-level variables
 SBELONG 29.19*** 11.63 ns ns
 SPERSEV ns ns ns
 SINSTMOT ns −33.88* 18.90 ns
 SMATBEH −26.15** 13.00 −56.48*** 13.37 ns
 SATTSCHL Ns −33.07*** 10.03 26.73* 14.00
 SATTLNACT ns ns ns
 SOPENPS 22.57** 10.47 ns 37.50* 20.16
 SFAILMAT ns ns ns
 SMATEFF 61.05*** 16.85 ns ns
 SSCMAT −36.47** 15.22 ns ns
 SANXMAT ns ns ns
 SINTMAT −65.59*** 20.00 ns ns
Proportion of variance explained at school level 0.44 0.58 0.25
Proportion of variance explained at student level 0.07 0.17 0.16
  1. ns nonsignificant
  2. *** p < .01, ** p < .05, * p < .10