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Table 1 Measures and its operationalisation

From: Affective characteristics and mathematics performance in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand: what can PISA 2012 data tell us?

Measures Abbreviation No. of items Operationalisation
Student engagement with and at schools
 Sense of belonging BELONG 9 Students’ reports about their feeling of social connectedness, happiness, and satisfaction at school
 Attitudes towards learning outcomes ATTSCHL 4 Students’ reports about the importance of school for their future
 Attitudes towards learning activities ATTLNACT 4 Students’ reports about the importance of and pleasure they derive from working hard at school
Students’ drive and motivation
 Perseverance PERSEV 5 Students’ responses about their willingness to work on problems that difficult, even when they encounter problems
 Openness to problem-solving OPENPS 5 Students’ responses about their willingness to engage with problems
 Self-responsibility for failing in mathematics FAILMAT 6 Students’ responses about whether they attribute failure in mathematics tests to themselves or to others
 Intrinsic motivation (indicated by mathematics interest) INTMAT 4 Students’ responses about whether they enjoy mathematics and work hard in mathematics because they enjoy the subject
 Instrumental motivation INSTMOT 4 Students’ responses about whether they believe mathematics is important for their future careers
Mathematics self-beliefs, dispositions, and participation in mathematics-related activities
 Mathematics self-efficacy MATHEFF 8 Students’ responses about their perceived ability to solve a range of pure and applied mathematics problems
 Mathematics self-concept SCMAT 5 Students’ responses about their perceived competence in mathematics
 Mathematics anxiety ANXMAT 5 Students’ responses about feelings of stress and helplessness when dealing with mathematics
 Mathematics behaviour MATHBEH 8 Students’ responses about their participation in a range of mathematics-related activities
  1. Source: OECD (2013, p. 39–110)