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Table 3 Regression analyses on testing the confounding effects of country-specific characteristics on the relation between math-science coherence and problem solving competence ( N= 41)

From: The acquisition of problem solving competence: evidence from 41 countries that math and science education matters

  Model M0 Model M1
Country-specific characteristics β (SE) β (SE)
Math-science coherence r(M,S) .76 (.07)*** .17 (.08)*
Society-related factors:   
 National Intelligence - .49 (.08)***
 Human Development Index - .31 (.09)**
Curriculum-related factors:   
 Educational objectives (1 = progressive) - -.04 (.06)
 Science curriculum (1 = integrated) - .14 (.05)**
School-related factors:   
 Frequency of assessments - -.15 (.05)**
 Educational resources - .09 (.07)
 School autonomy - .22 (.06)***
R2 (SE) .57 (.10)*** .93 (.02)***
Confounder effect β M0 M1 - .59 (.06)***
  1. Note. The confounder effect β M0 M1 between Models M0 and M1 tested against zero.
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.