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Table 1 Country-specific characteristics referring to society, curricula, and school practice

From: The acquisition of problem solving competence: evidence from 41 countries that math and science education matters

Country National intelligence HDI 2005 Educational objectives Science curriculum Frequency of assessment Educational resources School autonomy
Australia 98 .93 Progressive Differentiated 1.98 .48 .20
Austria 100 .87 Academic Integrated 2.10 .40 -.71
Belgium 99 .88 Academic Integrated 2.21 .19 -.06
Brazil 87 .70 Academic Differentiated 2.74 -.82 -.26
Canada 99 .91 Progressive Differentiated 2.22 -.07 .00
Czech Republic 98 .86 Academic Integrated 2.07 -.06 .97
Denmark 98 .89 Progressive Integrated 1.94 .07 .28
Finland 99 .88 Progressive Integrated 1.78 -.04 .06
France 98 .88 Academic Integrated NA NA NA
Germany 99 .90 Academic Integrated 2.57 .20 -.70
Greece 92 .86 Academic Integrated 1.42 -.39 −1,46
Hong Kong 108 .86 Academic Differentiated 1.57 .36 .58
Hungary 97 .82 Academic Integrated 2.63 -.02 .84
Iceland 101 .90 Progressive Integrated 2.50 .18 .54
Indonesia 87 .58 Academic Integrated 1.85 -.67 .47
Ireland 92 .91 Progressive Integrated 2.21 -.05 -.03
Italy 97 .87 Academic Differentiated 2.26 .28 -.47
Japan 105 .90 Academic Differentiated 1.52 -.03 .09
Korea 106 .88 Academic Differentiated 1.61 .56 -.05
Latvia 98 .79 Progressive Integrated 2.31 -.46 .44
Liechtenstein 100 .88 Academic Differentiated 2.08 1.03 .70
Luxembourg 100 .88 Academic Integrated 2.10 .08 −1.43
Macao (China) 101 .64 Academic Integrated 1.90 -.16 1.60
Mexico 88 .75 Academic Integrated 2.15 -.47 −1.47
The Netherlands 100 .90 Academic Integrated 2.19 .52 1.35
New Zealand 99 .91 Progressive Differentiated 2.19 .22 .66
Norway 100 .95 Progressive Differentiated 2.10 -.28 -.63
Poland 95 .80 Academic Integrated 1.59 -.65 .14
Portugal 95 .80 Academic Integrated 2.05 -.08 -.77
Russia 97 .75 Academic Integrated 1.83 −1.13 .52
Slovakia 96 .81 Academic Integrated 1.99 -.79 .71
Spain 98 .87 Academic Differentiated 2.56 -.03 -.11
Sweden 99 .91 Progressive Differentiated 2.37 .08 .93
Switzerland 101 .90 Academic Differentiated 2.09 .60 -.42
Thailand 91 .66 Academic Differentiated 1.68 -.60 .38
Tunisia 84 .68 Academic Differentiated 1.72 -.46 −1.27
Turkey 90 .68 Academic Integrated 1.40 −1.33 -.76
United Kingdom 100 .87 Progressive Differentiated 2.05 .16 .77
United States 98 .92 Progressive Differentiated 3.14 .48 .84
Uruguay 96 .74 Academic Differentiated 1.98 -.72 -.92
Yugoslavia NA .71 Academic Integrated 1.21 -.80 -.49
  1. Note. Data are based on the PISA and TIMSS 2003 studies. The scales of ‘frequency of assessment’, ‘educational resources’, and ‘school autonomy’ are averaged for schools within a country and are based on the WLE estimates. NA: missing data.