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Table 2 Description of the items included in the analyses

From: The relationship between students’ self-assessed reading skills and other measures of achievement

Variable Information/question/statement Source
Reading achievement Pupils’ test result on the PIRLS 2001 test. Pupil
Gender Pupil gender (Girl = 1, Boy = 0) Pupil
Number of books at home About how many books are there in your home? Ordinal variable—1–5: 0–10, 11–25, 26–50, 51–100, more than 100 Parent
Well-off financially How well off do you think your family is compared to other families? Ordinal variable—1–5: Not at all well-off, Not well-off, Average, Somewhat well-off, Very well-off Parent
Annual income Household annual income. Ordinal variable—1–6: Less than $20,000, $20,000– $29,999, $30,000–$39,999, $40,000–$49 999, $50,000–$59,999, $60,000or more Parent
Highest education Highest educational level in the home. Ordinal variable—1–8: Some compulsory school, Completed compulsory school, Two years of upper-secondary education, Three years of upper-secondary education, Post-secondary education, Two years of university studies, University studies—candidate level, University studies—Master’s level Parent
Highest occupational level Highest occupational level in the home. Ordinal variable—1–3: Blue collar, White collar, Academic Parent
Attitude1 I read only if I have to. Ordinal variable. Four alternatives: Agree a lot (1), Agree a little (2), Disagree a little (3), Disagree a lot (4) Pupil
Attitude2 I think reading is boring. Ordinal variable. Four alternatives: Agree a lot (1), Agree a little (2), Disagree a little (3), Disagree a lot (4) Pupil
Attitude3 I would be happy if someone gave me a book as a present. Ordinal variable. Four alternatives: Agree a lot (1), Agree a little (2), Disagree a little (3), Disagree a lot (4) Pupil
Attitude4 I enjoy reading. Ordinal variable. Four alternatives: Agree a lot (1), Agree a little (2), Disagree a little (3), Disagree a lot (4) Pupil